John ColemanBorn: August 9th, 1934, Manchester (United Kingdom)
John and his mother returned to Manchester in October 1944, where he continued his piano studies with a local teacher. He also got to try his hand at two other musical instruments, as he recalls: “My father, having discovered my musical abilities and himself being a frustrated brass bandsman, thought it would be good idea for me to learn to play the cornet and join a local brass band. Moreover, my aunt Nora who lived in Blackpool owned two violins and she thought it would be a good idea for me to learn to play that instrument as well. So the violins came from Blackpool to Manchester and my mother found a violin teacher. This episode did not last too long though, because I fractured my left wrist in a traffic incident in which I was knocked off my bicycle. With hindsight, it was a good thing I was given the experience of these instruments, which has been helpful when writing arrangements and orchestrations. Though I played in a brass band for many years, the piano was always the instrument in which I invested most effort, going through many piano examinations.”
Unsure of his future plans, John left grammar school at the age of seventeen, spending a year working at the Manchester branch of the Yorkshire Insurance Company. Between 1952 and 1954, he did the obligatory two years National Service in the Royal Air Force, stationed at Turnhouse Aerodrome in Edinburgh and working underground at Barnton Quarry. During this time he became good friends with the fledgling jazz pianist Alan Howarth, who was at the same station and introduced John to jazz music. “Up to that point”, John explains, “my musical education had solely been the classics, both theoretical and practical. What was more, my piano teacher had once told me that, if I ever considered turning to commercial music to earn a living, she would no longer be able to teach me. With hindsight, though, I think this was not so much a threat as more an admission that she had no experience in that field. After my time in the RAF I went back to her for a time, but after the two year break I found it very difficult to pick up where I had left off. It was a different world and I had to get a job. So I went back to the insurance company. At this time I wanted to play the trumpet and my trumpet teacher Freddy Barrett, who ran a music shop in Manchester, got me some gigs, playing in dance bands performing in town halls and palais, dance halls. I was second trumpet in the Ken Nelson Orchestra for some time, the first trumpet being Nigel Carter, who later became the lead trumpet with the BBC Big Band. Playing for up to five nights a week eventually began to catch up with me and I was regularly late for work at ‘The Yorkshire’…. I was burning the candle at both ends. Eventually, the branch manager sent for me and told me that, in his opinion, I should decide if my career was to be in music or insurance – a choice I had been carefully avoiding for a year. Although both of my parents were apprehensive about my future, it was obvious to me that I was doing better at music than insurance, so I left the Yorkshire Insurance Company in 1956.”
That same year, John became a professional trumpet player with the Ben Oakley Orchestra on the pier in faraway Southsea. After the 1956 summer season, he passed an audition to join the Ivor Kirchin Band at Sale Locarno, a well known Mecca ballroom just outside his native Manchester and he stayed with the band for almost three years (1956-’59). “One of the conditions of the contract with Ivor was that I had to write an arrangement each week, for which I got the princely sum of two pounds and that included the copying! I wrote dance band versions of popular American songs such as ‘Diana’ by Paul Anka and ‘Jailhouse Rock’ by Elvis Presley. I had to take down the lyrics of each song simply by listening to the record. In the case of Elvis I had absolutely no idea what he was talking about! “The prison band was there and they began to wail”… not a clue! Learning to arrange was essentially a case of trial and error. Admittedly, the Kirchin Band was not very large, but still – four trumpets, four saxes, a rhythm section, and a singer. It was quite a challenge!”
In 1959, John decided to try his luck in London, where he joined a band with the evocative name André Rico and his Cha Cha Chaleros. “André had a regular Sunday night gig at the Marquee when it was in Oxford Street, but we also played all over the UK. After about a year, I heard that Woolf Phillips, whose orchestra played in the Pigalle – a theatre-restaurant in Piccadilly – needed a trumpet player, as one of his was leaving to go work at the BBC… none other than Ronnie Hazlehurst! We did a floor show twice a night… one of the most exciting was a two week stint with Sammy Davis Jr. Meanwhile, with the rock ‘n’ roll revolution going on around us, life for dance band musicians in the early 1960s was not always easy and there were times when I thought seriously about leaving London and going back to Manchester. The Woolf Phillips band was dissolved in ’62. Luckily, I was offered a job as a pianist with a trio at the Arno’s Court County Club in Bristol. Every week, we accompanied a different cabaret artist, such as Bob Monkhouse or Engelbert Humperdinck – who in those days was known as Gerry Dorsey. Accompanying such artists later proved a wonderful grounding when I started working in the television industry.”
In 1965, Coleman returned to London, getting involved in a wide range of professional activities. He continued playing the piano in ensembles in West End restaurants such as The Latin Quarter and The Stable and later worked with quartet leader Ray Ellington on a regular basis. Most significantly perhaps, Coleman managed to get his foot in the door in the film industry. He comments: “Basil Kirchin, Ivor’s son, was a drummer and we got on well. While I was in Bristol, he used to come down to compose and write arrangements together for his father’s band. His ambition was to write film music and, in ’65, he was commissioned to pen the incidental music for ‘Catch us if you can’, a film featuring the Dave Clark Five. Basil needed an orchestrator and conductor to assist him – so he asked me! Conducting an orchestra of session musicians in the studio for the first time was a new experience and although I had conducted Ivor’s band when rehearsing my arrangements, I was not at all comfortable standing up in front of the orchestra, albeit fairly small. How would I know when to start? Was there time for a count or did I have to start with a downbeat? “Wait for the ticker, John”, I was told, but nobody bothered to tell me what a ticker was… it took some time to get familiar with the methods used in soundtrack recording!”
With Basil Kirchin, Coleman co-composed, arranged, and conducted several more film scores, including ‘Assignment K’, ‘The Strange Affair’ (both from 1968), ‘I Start Counting’ (1969), and ‘Freelance’ (1971), as well as signing for the music to the highly controversial documentary ‘Primitive London’ (1967). On top of all the aforementioned activities, Coleman was successful as an accompanist for various singers, such as Diana Dors, Dusty Springfield, and Lulu. “The job with Lulu came my way thanks to impresario Dick Katz, Ray Ellington’s former pianist”, Coleman recalls. “He phoned Ray one day to ask which pianist he was using, the next question no doubt being: “Is he any good?”. The answer was probably ‘yes’, because Dick booked me to do a week’s cabaret in Darlington with his wife Valerie Masters. On the Saturday night, Dick turned up and said: “I’ll do the show tonight”, but I said: “No, I’ll do it, because the musicians in the band are accustomed to me leading them”. Dick backed down and followed the show in the audience. Afterwards, obviously pleased by the performance, he came to the dressing room and said: “I am going to get you a lot of work!” I got to do more gigs with Valerie and some other of Dick’s artists, including Lulu, for whom I led a nine-piece-band touring the country. As a result, I was asked to play piano with the Johnny Harris Orchestra when he conducted for Lulu in the 1969 Song for Europe and Eurovision. ‘Boom bang-a-bang’ was the winning song. Poor Lulu! After that, she ended up singing it in every cabaret performance for many, many years”.
The 1969 edition of Song for Europe was John Coleman’s baptism of fire in the world of television, which became his main working ground for the following twenty-five years. “Unwittingly, Lulu really paved the way for me… I worked very closely with her for a number of years as an arranger and musical director. In the aftermath of her Eurovision victory, she did several light entertainment shows with the BBC. As her regular accompanist, I was usually asked to play piano for these programmes. She recorded a series of shows with musical director Alyn Ainsworth, on which I played Hammond organ and wrote some arrangements. More work followed on other programmes and series with the result that gradually, in the course of the 1970s, I became well established in the world of television. Some of the programmes that I worked on regularly were Top of the Pops, which had a live orchestra at that time with Johnny Pearson as its conductor, and the Benny Hill Shows for Thames Television with musical director Ronnie Aldrich.” In 1977, Coleman conducted the BBC entry for the international Golden Sea Swallow competition in Knokke (Belgium), winning first prize with ‘The MDCLXXVII Show’ featuring Rolf Harris, Bonnie Tyler, Guys & Dolls and… a real horse!
Apart from his TV work, Coleman did the arranging for 'Tom Brown's Schooldays' a musical composed by Chris Andrews, which was staged at the Cambridge Theatre in London’s West End in 1971. Moreover, he worked extensively as musical director with artists such as Dana, The Nolan Sisters, The Three Degrees, and Shirley Bassey. “Initially”, Coleman recalls, “I was to be the pianist in the orchestra on Shirley’s tour of the UK and Scandinavia in 1977, whilst MD’ing the support acts which preceded her performance. We had just done a BBC TV series for which Arthur Greenslade was the Musical Director. Unfortunately he tore a ligament in his right shoulder on the first gig, which was in Manchester. He told me that conducting was too painful and asked me to dep for him for the remainder of the tour. My first show as a conductor was in Brighton… afterwards, Arthur told me that Shirley was happy and felt comfortable on stage with me behind her, which was a relief, because she could be quite demanding at times! Subsequently, I did the rest of the tour in England and several cities in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark.”
A special episode in John Coleman’s career is having been part of the Frank Sinatra London Orchestra for three tours of the United Kingdom and mainland Europe with Ol’ Blue Eyes between 1975 and 1978. “Don Costa was to conduct Frank’s European tour, but he had a heart-attack and was replaced by Sinatra’s pianist, Bill Miller. Looking for a replacement for Bill in the orchestra, they turned to me, as I had been booked to be the pianist and MD for the Nolan Sisters, who opened the bill with Frank Sinatra at the Royal Albert Hall. Working with Sinatra proved enjoyable and nerve-wrecking at the same time. The man was such a giant in the industry! At times, he could be intimidating. Once, during a rehearsal, he stopped singing, because he was not hearing what he wanted from the string section. He said to Bill: “No, not like that. I want it like this”, upon which he turned to the string section and conducted them through the passage in question, technically perfect – and the string players responded magnificently. Turning to Bill he said: “Like that!” He expected high standards, from everyone! These tours are amongst the unforgettable experiences in my working life, finding myself in the middle of an orchestra comprised of the best musicians in country.”
In 1979, Alyn Ainsworth decided to work for director and producer David Bell at ITV, giving up most of his BBC gigs. Coleman: “Much of Alyn’s BBC work had been for director Stewart Morris, a powerful man at that time. Stewart was not the easiest man, but once you had won his trust, he would call upon you over and over again to work for him. Thanks to him, I had been given the opportunity to go to Knokke with Rolf Harris and to be the musical director for a TV series with Les Dawson and Lulu in ’78. Alyn suggested that Stewart should use me as musical director and most of his television work now came my way. The 1980 Song for Europe was the first of many programmes that I did with him. By that time, I had learnt a lot about the TV business and about working as a musical director… first of all simply by watching the conductors that I worked for. Johnny Harris was a showman, but a true professional and I took note of everything he did. Alyn, like me, never trained as a conductor, but he developed a recognizable style of his own and was well-liked by the musicians. Moreover, he brought in a wealth of experience, having conducted different BBC ensembles and orchestras since the 1950s. Both helped in developing my conducting skills.”
In the 1980s and the first half of the 1990s, John Coleman was one of the most sought-after arrangers, musical directors, and conductors in the world of television. Mostly with director Stewart Morris, he not only conducted five editions of ‘A Song for Europe’ between 1980 and 1985, but also worked on three BBC series with Grace Kennedy (1980-’82), who he accompanied as a musical director to the 1979 Intervision Song Contest in Sopot, Poland as well. Moreover, Coleman did three series of ‘Bob Says Opportunity Knocks’ with Bob Monkhouse (1987-’89), and five seasons of shows with Les Dawson spread over more than a decade (1978-’89), whilst also teaming up with the likes of Lena Zavaroni, Marti Caine, and Bruce Forsyth. Being freelance, Coleman also worked on programmes for Independent Television, such as ‘Saturday Royal’ with Nigel Lythgoe (1983), three series of the Ronn Lucas Show (1990-’91), as well as a string of different comedy shows. Coleman conducted the orchestra in several big televised spectacles, such as the Royal Gala in aid of the XIII Commonwealth Games (BBC: 1985), the opening ceremony of these same Commonwealth Games (BBC: 1986), and the Royal Gala to celebrate VE Day (ITV: 1995).
For Coleman, this last mentioned gala is one of the highlights of his TV career: “The show went out live from the London Coliseum and I had a marvellous orchestra in the pit. The cast of artists appearing was quite prestigious, with, amongst others, Céline Dion, Darcey Bussell, and Harry Secombe. Really exciting! Another highlight no doubt was working with tenor José Carreras. I did a Bruce Forsyth special for the BBC and Carreras was one of the special guests. The prospect of working with such a world star made me quite nervous. In the days before, I studied the score every free moment to get to know it, even listening to a cassette of his performance in the taxi on the way to the studios. But… everything went well – so well in fact that, when he came to do another BBC programme sometime later, he specifically asked for John Coleman to be his conductor!”
In 1979, Coleman was introduced to film composer Marc Wilkinson by a mutual friend. “Marc was looking for an orchestrator for the film ‘Eagle’s Wing’”, Coleman remembers. “He gave me the opportunity to work on that film. As he was satisfied with the things I came up with, we did several more films together. Marc, in his turn, introduced me to other composers, most prominently Trevor Jones, who asked me to write orchestrations for many of his film scores. The function of a movie orchestrator is to get the intention of the composer down on paper correctly. I have been doing this type of work to the present day and have been involved in some American box-office successes. I cannot say I have always liked being an orchestrator, as working in the film industry as a rule involves extreme time pressure, but there is undoubtedly certain kudos in having your name going up in the credits! Over the years, the job has changed due to the computer making its appearance. Nowadays, orchestration is no longer done with pencil and paper.”
Amongst the original soundtracks for which Coleman orchestrated the score are ‘The Fiendish Plot of Dr. Fu Manchu’ composed by Marc Wilkinson (1980), ‘Excalibur’ (1981) and ‘The Dark Crystal’ (1982) by Trevor Jones, and ‘Best revenge’ (1984) by Keith Emerson. Moreover, Coleman worked on the orchestrations of TV series such as ‘The Last Days of Pompei’ (1984) and TV films including ‘Doctor Fischer of Geneva’ (1985), based on the eponymous novel by Graham Greene. Thanks to his involvement with composer John Powell, Coleman also got to pen the orchestrations to some successful American productions, such as ‘Rat Race’ (2001) and the computer-animated films ‘Shrek’ (2001) and ‘Kung Fu Panda’ (2008).
In more recent years, Coleman was commissioned by Martin Yates of West End International to produce new orchestrations for several crossover concerts of pop music standards and film music with classical orchestras (2007-’10), whilst he has continued writing arrangements for the radio show ‘Friday Night Is Music Night’ with the BBC Concert Orchestra.
John Coleman in the Eurovision Song Contest
As ‘A Song for Europe’ was a live show, occasional hiccups were unavoidable. Coleman: “One time, when I was preparing to count in the orchestra for one of the participants, I noticed my drummer Harold Fisher staring at me with a horrified open mouthed expression The act that was coming on stage was not the one I was expecting. I pushed the button to the control room to ask Stewart if this was right. He said “yes”, immediately followed by “cue music!” At the same time, I was going through my scores like a madman and I found the right one just in time. It felt like a nightmare, though, because one of the last things I used to do at the end of a rehearsal was to go through the music and check that everything is in the right order. To this day, I do not know what went wrong, but we lived through it anyhow! On another occasion, in 1985, all songs for Song for Europe were previewed on The Terry Wogan Show. I was there with a live orchestra on stage. When James Oliver came on to do his song (‘What we say with our eyes’, BT’), something went wrong and his vocal could not be heard by the TV audience at home – in the theatre yes, at home no! From the control room, director Kevin Bishop told me to stop the band. However nothing seemed to be wrong and James could be heard properly, so Kevin had to repeat the order before I reacted. The next thing was to get my musicians to stop playing. My face must have shown the stress. Nobody stops the orchestra in the middle of a live transmission! Therefore, they played on… and on…and James kept on singing. I managed to get the strings to stop, but the rhythm section kept on going. All of this only took seconds, but it seemed to last an eternity. In the end, Terry Wogan came on stage to tell James and the audience about the technical problem. That certainly was a night to remember!”
The 1980 edition of ‘A Song for Europe’ was won by Prima Donna, a three girl-three boy group tailor-made for the Eurovision Song Contest, including in their ranks Sally Ann Triplett. They represented the United Kingdom in the international final in The Hague with ‘Love enough for two’, composed by Stephanie de Sykes and Stuart Slater, and came third behind the entries from Ireland and West Germany. Coleman: “As this was my first experience at the Eurovision Song Contest, I was nervous going there. After all, it was a very prestigious event and you cannot make any mistake! I took my pocket metronome with me to make sure that I got the tempo right. Standing in front of the orchestra for our first rehearsal, I was extremely tense. What I did not know yet was that Eurovision orchestras were always marvellous and well-rehearsed! It was a matter of prestige for the organizing country to get the best of their musicians together. What was more, the musicians were friendly and all on your side – they wanted to get it right as much as you did! I quickly realized that all I had to do was go and stand there, say “ok, here we go” and count to four. In fact, a conductor could even have counted them in wrongly and they would still have started playing in the right tempo… so my nerves subsided instantly!”
As Coleman was never involved in writing the UK entry’s arrangement and was part of the BBC team, he naturally spent more time with the BBC delegates to the contest than with the songwriters and artists. Coleman: “All artists I worked with in the Eurovision Song Contest were pleasant and very friendly when you spoke to them. The songwriters and arrangers were there at the rehearsals and observed, but on no occasion did they interfere with me. The arrangements were usually pretty straightforward and as I prepared the conducting of the score carefully, there was hardly anything to talk over with anyone. Apart from these rehearsals, such a Eurovision week left me with a certain amount of leisure time. My wife Fiesta was always with me and we usually had the opportunity to do some sightseeing, which was nice.”
In The Hague, John Coleman met Noel Kelehan, the conductor of the Irish delegation. Ireland won the festival with Johnny Logan and ‘What’s another year’. Coleman: “It was only on the night of the broadcast that he introduced himself to me. He had seen me using my metronome. When I went up to the green room after we had done our song, Noel shook my hand and offered me a drink. “Would you mind”, he asked me, “if I borrow your metronome? We are very close to the three minute time limit and I don’t want anything to go wrong.” After the Irish performance, the two of us spent the rest of the evening deep in conversation. Being English and Irish, I guess we naturally gravitated towards one another. We paid no attention to the voting whatsoever. When the Irish won, the floor manager had to come looking for Noel to get him to conduct the orchestra again. “What are you doing here? You have won!”, he cried out to him. Noel and I had not even noticed the voting was over.”
As a result of Johnny Logan’s first Eurovision victory, the contest moved to Dublin in 1981. At the time, representing the United Kingdom in Ireland was not without its problems, ‘The Troubles’ being very much a fact of life. Coleman: “When the British delegation arrived at the airport in Dublin, we were given a police motor cycle escort to take us to our hotel and throughout the following week the security was always heavy. But I never felt uncomfortable, rightly or wrongly, I made the assumption that no one would be interested in harming musicians.”
The United Kingdom’s entry that year was ‘Making your mind up’, written by John Danter and Andy Hill for the quartet Bucks Fizz. The arrangement to this up-tempo effort was written by a former Eurovision conductor, Nick Ingman. In an exciting voting procedure, Bucks Fizz managed to shake off its competitors and won the festival. Coleman: “Just like ‘Love enough for two’ the year before, this was an excellent Eurovision song – not the sort of the thing that I would put on for an evening of entertainment at home, but very effective and objectively much better than some of the other entries that we heard on Eurovision… and some of the it was excruciatingly funny as well. In a repeat of what we did in The Hague, Noel Kelehan and I spent most of the evening together chatting in the greenroom. I had had a great time all week with him and the musicians of his orchestra, who were very hospitable. When we won, I was delighted – that is, when I was told we had won. Like in 1980, Noel and I had simply not been following the voting procedure.”
As a result of Bucks Fizz’ win in Dublin, the United Kingdom – meaning the BBC with Ronnie Hazlehurst as musical director – had to host the 1982 Eurovision Song Contest which was held in Harrogate. Hazlehurst also conducted ‘A Song for Europe’ that year. Coleman: “Nonetheless, I could have had an involvement in the contest … I was phoned at a very late stage by a member of the production team, asking if I would be able to play synthesizer for one of the acts – I was never told for which country. By that time, however, I had other commitments, which meant I couldn’t accept the offer. A pity, as it would have been quite lucrative!”
In 1983, John Coleman was back as conductor with the British delegation. In the contest held in Munich, West Germany, the United Kingdom was represented by Sweet Dreams, another manufactured group, with the song ‘I’m never giving up’ by songwriters Jan Pulsford, Ron Roker, and Phil Wigger. Sweet Dreams finished sixth. “We had a great time in Munich with the BBC delegation”, Coleman recounts. “Jim Moir, the head of Light Entertainment was, when he was off duty, an extremely funny man with a great sense of humour. Wherever he was around, especially in the bus taking us to and from the venue, everybody was in stitches. Much later I thought that maybe this was his way of getting us to relax and ease the tension.”
Coleman’s overriding memory of the ’83 contest is an example of German Gründlichkeit: “The rehearsals and contest were organised with typical thoroughness and efficiency, except that, in rehearsals, there seemed to be a very lengthy pause between the moment when the artists were set on stage and the cue to start the orchestra. The conductor of the song before ours (This must have been Sigurd Jansen from Norway, BT) and I commented on this and we agreed that it did not seem fair to leave the artists out there roasting on stage. We did not have a clue why this had to be, so we decided that, at the next rehearsal, we were going to start the orchestra as soon as we got up there. This turned out not to be a good idea… there was no doubt a reason why they wanted this delay and the floor manager immediately started blowing a very loud whistle like a football referee to stop the orchestra. “Please start when we tell you to start and not before!”, she shouted. They wanted it done exactly their way.”
In the 1984 contest held in Luxembourg the UK entry, ‘Love games’, was performed by Belle & The Devotions and obtained seventh spot on the scoreboard. Coleman: “Going to Luxembourg was very pleasant; particularly the day-off which I spent with my wife visiting the Ardennes. Unfortunately, it was obvious from the start that the British were not very popular in Luxembourg. A couple of months before some English football supporters had behaved very badly there during an international match. I got the feeling that our hotel was possibly not where we could have stayed had the hooligans not done their damage; it was a little basic. There was also a mix-up with the reservations, resulting in my wife and I being put in a single room. Luckily, Terry Wogan was kind enough to swap rooms letting us have his double.
The song ‘Love games’ was surrounded by controversy, as the composition by Graham Sacher and Paul Curtis was deemed by many to be an obvious rip-off of the style of song which Holland & Dozier had penned for the Supremes. “Though I could not really understand why such a song had been chosen in our country”, Coleman comments, “I was indignant when members of other delegations had a derogatory attitude towards it. Come on, these were simply Eurovision songs, not classical symphonies! To my mind the criticism was not just about the entry, but about our country! We were representing the United Kingdom with a song that had been chosen by the British public. It is always possible to disagree with the outcome of a majority vote, but the bottom line is that you respect it. The nicest thing about all of this was that the country which had been most critical of us did not do well in the voting at all.”
Coleman’s last participation in the Eurovision Song Contest was in 1985, when the festival was held in Gothenburg, Sweden. The United Kingdom came fourth with ‘Love is…’ by Vikki (Victoria Watson), who wrote the song in collaboration with James Kaleth. Coleman: “The contest in Sweden was smoothly organized. We were collected from the airport by our hostess, Margareta, who was most charming and did a good job for us all week. At the rehearsals, there was some discussion with the Swedish production team about certain camera shots, but, with Stewart Morris in the delegation, you could be sure that things would be sorted out in the end – and they were. This edition of the contest must have been the only time I paid any attention to the results, as after each song, the artists with their conductors were seated together… I guess to make it easier for the floor manager to find the winner when the time came.”
Due to an air strike, the British delegation could not fly back to London as scheduled. “Jim Moir came up with the solution”, as Coleman remembers. “He organized a coach, which took us from Gothenburg to Copenhagen from where we caught a plane which brought us to England that same day. For me personally, this was a great relief, because I had to be in East Germany the next day for a show at the Friedrichstadt Palast in East Berlin with choreographer Nigel Lythgoe. It was a special commission – a dance performance for which Nigel needed me to take care of the arrangements. If I had not got back to London that Sunday, I would not have been able to catch the flight via Schiphol to the GDR the day after.”
In 1986, Coleman was in Edinburgh with Stewart Morris and choreographer Lud Romano for the Opening Ceremony of the XIII Commonwealth Games. The responsibility for UK entries for Eurovision passed to other BBC producers, who chose their own musical director. In 1991 and 1992 Morris returned to the Eurovision but without Coleman who was unavailable being involved in other projects, making Ronnie Hazlehurst the natural choice instead. Coleman “I never got to know Ronnie very well, but he was always most friendly and helpful. He was a talented musician, who had the gift of writing appropriate, effective and memorable music for television. Of course, I would have liked to have done Eurovision again, but it was not to be!”
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